Ewart, James Cossar, 1851-1933 (zoologist and professor of natural history, University of Edinburgh)
James Cossar Ewart was born in Penicuik, Midlothian, on 26 November 1851. He was educated in Penicuik and entered the University of Edinburgh as a medical student in 1870, graduating as a Bachelor of Medicine and Master of Surgery in 1874.
Ewart found employment in London as Curator of the Zoological Museum at University College, and also published a number of papers on the structure of the retina and lens, the sexual organs of the lamprey, and the placentation of the Shanghai River deer. His research on Bacillus anthracis was presented as a thesis for the degree of Doctor of Medicine at Edinburgh.
After a brief return to Edinburgh as Lecturer in Anatomy in the Extra-Mural School, Ewart was appointed to the Chair of Natural History in the University of Aberdeen at the end of 1878. It was there that Ewart became interested in marine biological investigation and established an experimental station on the coast in the area, the first of its kind in Britain. In 1882 Ewart secured the post of Regius Professor of Natural History at the University of Edinburgh, a position he was to hold for 45 years.
In around 1894, Ewart began his investigations into experimental breeding, the work for which he was to become best known. He was especially concerned with disproving the long-held theory of Telegony, which held that a sire may 'infect' the dam he serves so as to influence the characteristics of future offsprings from different sires. To do this, Ewart repeated a classic experiment which supposedly proved this theory, the case involving the Arab mare belonging to Lord Morton which produced a striped foal after mating with a quagga, even when subsequently served by an Arab stallion. Ewart's experiment used a Burchell's zebra (the quagga having become extinct), but found that the 'subsequent foals' showed no signs of having been affected by a previous zebra sire. The results of his work were published in The Penycuik Experiments (1899). Ewart's preoccupation with the evolution of horses, particularly the theories that early horses were striped and that the modern domestic horse had a multiple origin, was to occupy him for large part of his career.
Following his major publications on horses, Ewart turned his attention to experiments on sheep, being largely occupied with cross-breeding for fleece improvements, travelling as far as Australia and New Zealand to advise sheep breeders and related institutions there. Ewart's later work focused on the origin and history of feathers in birds and their relation to scales in reptiles. The rearing of penguins at the then fairly new Edinburgh Zoo provided him with the relevant material.
Ewart remained adamant that animal breeding should be taken seriously by universites and funding bodies, both for its academic importance in terms of the emergent science of genetics as well as its practical and financial use to agriculturalists around the world. It was certainly at least partly due to Ewart's knowledge, reputation and advocacy that a University Lectureship in Genetics, the first post of its kind in the UK, was instituted in 1911 at the University of Edinburgh.
James Cossar Ewart died at his home in Penicuik on New Year's Eve 1933 after a short illness. He was elected a Fellow of the Royal Society in June 1893, having jointly delivered the Croonian Lecture in 1881, jointly with George John Romanes. F.H.A Marshall described him as not only 'a distinguished man of science but also as a delightful companion, a kindly and courteous host, and a loyal and loveable friend.'
Found in 19 Collections and/or Records:
Scope and Contents Ewart thanks Elwes for his information on sheep, which he will need for a paper he is to write. He writes that William Eagle Clarke did not land on Soay but hopes to do so on his next visit to St Kilda.
Dates: 04 April 1911
Scope and Contents Ewart writes that he will show Elwes Mr Cowan's Shetland sheep at Penicuik and compares features of the Soay and the dun-faced sheep.
Dates: 28 April 1911
Scope and Contents Ewart writes that he is enclosing a report on the wool from Watson, Wallace's assistant, although he has not yet heard about the Iceland wool. He would like to have the Ronaldsay sheep, and understands that they live between a wall and the sea and feed mainly on seaweed.
Dates: 20 August 1911
Scope and Contents Ewart writes from Lerwick, Shetland, that he would be happy to arrange to keep the 15 ewes and lambs at Fairslacks for a year at a fair price, although it will be best not to add to the permanent stock until the farm is taken over by the University in October or November that year. At an exhibition on Shetland he saw a ewe as small as the one in the British Museum from Papa Stour with goat-like horns and a very short tail, as well as a hornless, short-tailed ewe with white patches at Foula;...
Dates: 12 August 1912
Scope and Contents Ewart thanks Elwes for the wool samples and the details about the Austrian Skemschaf. The four sheep have not yet arrived from Greystoke, but he doubts they are allowed into Scotland yet. Cowan is coming to see the Shetland ram from Fairisle and that he will use it with Elwes' ewes if it is judged to be better than Alexander's ram.
Dates: 29 August 1912
Scope and Contents Ewart writes that the embargo on transporting sheep and cattle between England and Scotland will be lifted in a few days. He thinks he may get the use of one of the islands in the Forth for sheep that are too wild for fences. He asks whether Elwes knows the Ryeland breed of sheep, as it has been suggested that he should put some to the 'Siberian' ram.
Dates: 17 October 1912
Scope and Contents Ewart writes that he will let Elwes know about the Ryelands ram. The cost of enclosing the sheep at the forthcoming Royal Highland Agricultural Show depends upon how many sheep Elwes is planning to exhibit; he should be able to cover the costs for the fencing by charging for the exhibition catalogue.
Dates: 21 October 1912
Scope and Contents Ewart encloses a cheque for the ewes Elwes is sending him, and confirms the number of sheep that are being sent. He tried to cross a he-goat with some ewes but there was no progeny. He asks if Ewart would like to see Appel's book on sheep.
Dates: 25 November 1912
Scope and Contents Ewart confirms the cost for sending the sheep. He comments on the Board of Agriculture's plans to have a small upland station.
Dates: 01 December 1912
Scope and Contents Ewart writes that the account for the sheep from Cheltenham has already been paid. He tells Elwes to make a note of anything interesting on his travels, and if Elwes is back by March they may meet at the Zoological Congress in Monte Carlo. He reports that Elwes' two fat-rumped sheep and a dozen more ewes seem to be in lamb to the fat-tailed ram, and that the cloth Elwes sent is much admired. Now that Ewart's lectures are over for the winter he hopes to get some writing done.
Dates: 13 January 1913