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Gregory, David, 1659-1708 (professor of mathematics, University of Edinburgh, and Savilian Professor of Astronomy, University of Oxford)

 Person

David Gregory (1659-1708), astronomer and mathematician, was the first university professor to teach astronomy in the language of Newtonian gravitation. He is famous for his influential textbook, Astronomiae Physicae et Geometricae Elementa, (1702). Having studied a while at Marischal College, Aberdeen, and without graduating, Gregory took the Mathematics Chair at Edinburgh University in 1683, by unseating the incumbent there in a series of public debates. It helped that the chair had been occupied briefly some years before by his esteemed uncle, James Gregorie (1638-1675). David was awarded a hasty MA for decorum's sake, even though he had never studied in Edinburgh, and taught for seven years. His lecture notes show that he covered a broad range of subjects, some of them not in mathematics. He also taught a little optics, mechanics, hydrostatics, and even anatomy, from Galen. His first significant publication was in 1684, the Exercitatio geometrica de dimensione figurarum , in which he extended his uncle's work on the method of quadratures by infinite series.
In 1689 there sprang bad blood between the university masters and their paymasters, the city council, initially having to do with pay cuts and treacherous electioneering. There quickly developed a web of sleights and grudges, in the course of which Gregory was libelled before the new Hanoverian committee of visitation as it toured all the Scottish educational bodies following the recent change of government. He was said to be a violent, drunken atheist, who kept women in his chambers and once visited a prisoner in the Canongate tollbooth; worse, he was a superficial teacher and a crypto-Cartesian. Surrounded by influential friends, and not holding any demonstrably radical views in politics, science, or deportment, he was finally not dismissed from the faculty as many of his colleagues were, nor even required to swear the oath of allegiance to the Hanoverian monarchy or the religious Confession of Faith either.
Yet by 1691 he saw fit to cadge a fresh appointment comfortably far away, in Oxford. This was the Savilian Chair of Astronomy. In its pursuit he came to know personally the figures with whom he had lately been in professional correspondence, like Isaac Newton (1642-1727), Edmond Halley (1656-1742), and John Flamsteed (1646-1719), the first Astronomer Royal. He was given another MA to suit the post, and a desultory MD; he was elected to the Royal Society, and appointed a master commoner of Balliol College. He spent the rest of his life as Savilian Professor, where he became something of an evangelist for Newtonian science among the Cartesians. He even troubled to travel to the continent, to exchange views with prominent colleagues like Jan Hudde (1628-1704) and Christiaan Huygens (1629-1695). He quarrelled occasionally with Newton and Halley over various points of research, and with Flamsteed over tutoring maths in the Duke of Gloucester's household, but generally carried on very productively.
His Edinburgh lectures he retooled by 1695 into the enduringly influential optics textbook, Catoptricae et dioptricae sphaericae elementa, whose special contribution was to propose an achromatic telescope, whose combined lenses ought to counteract colour aberrations. By 1702 his principle work went to press, the remarkable Astronomiae physicae et geometricae elementa. This was the first textbook to cast astronomy completely in the alloy of Newtonian gravitational principles. Newton himself assisted with the work, which at least one publisher immodestly declared would 'last as long as the sun and the moon'. It certainly lasted most of the eighteenth century. His final big publication was a joint edition of Euclid, which appeared in 1703. All through his career he complemented his monographs with a steady flow of journal articles and published correspondence in mathematics and astronomy; his special interests included the catenary curve, eclipses, the contemporary 'parallax problem', and the very famous Cassinian orbital model for heavenly bodies.
Late in his life, in 1707, the Act of Union between Scotland and England effectively ended Gregory's studies, calling him away from his work on an edition of Apollonius (eventually finished by Halley), and setting him to work instead on rationalising the Scottish Mint, even as Newton was doing at the London Mint, and on calculating the enormously complex 'Equivalent', a payment to Scotland to offset new customs and excise duties. His health failed him during his extensive official travelling. David Gregory died in a Maidenhead inn a year later. David Gregory was elected Fellow of the Royal Society in 1692 and was made honorary fellow of the Royal College of Physicians of Edinburgh in 1705.

Found in 11 Collections and/or Records:

Catalogue of book[s] now in Holland, May 1693

 Item
Identifier: Coll-33/Quarto A [23]
Scope and Contents List of 17 titles (partial cites only) in Latin and French, in an unnamed repository, concerning history, classical literature, and philosophical commentary, such as the "Dictionaire Critique de M. Bail".
Dates: May 1693

Excerpta de Codico M.S. Henratii communicata a [illegible], 27 May 1693

 Item
Identifier: Coll-33/Quarto A [19]
Scope and Contents Extract of a volume (only partially cited) found by David Gregory in Amsterdam. He captions this "F: a. Schoten', suggesting that the work transcribed is that of geometer Frans van Schooten (1615-1660). The work concerns curves and quadratures, and is laced with comparisons to the work of Jan Hudde.
Dates: 27 May 1693

Folio C, c1680-c1708

 Series — Volume: Dc.1.61
Identifier: Coll-33/Folio C
Scope and Contents The papers of David Gregory consist of: These are mostly handwritten items, bound together as a volume, though with some loose insertions of manuscripts which had strayed, some of them with modern annotations concerning their provenance. Their scope and content is as David Gregory indexed them, save for the missing items, which consist of two dozen papers and letters on general physics and maths, and several...
Dates: c1680-c1708

Index Chartarum in M.S. C. in folio, 1700

 Item
Identifier: Coll-33/Folio C [index]
Scope and Contents An index, in Gregory's hand, to the material he designated as Folio C.
Dates: 1700

Memoranda et observata in Batavia 1693 Maio, 17 May 1693

 Item
Identifier: Coll-33/Quarto A [31]
Scope and Contents Batavia is a seventeenth-century cognomen for the Netherlands, to which David Gregory went in the spring of 1693, mostly to talk science with Christiaan Huygens. This document is a list of some books he wished to buy for himself and for friends back home, if he could find them. They covered Palladius, Thucydides, Dionysius of Halicarnassus, Erasmus, "all I can find of the Roman Authors at Amst[erdam]", and others. On the reverse is a list of topics he wished to discuss when he finally sat down...
Dates: 17 May 1693

Observata et dicta apud D. Hugenium, 06 June 1693

 Item
Identifier: Coll-33/Quarto A [4]
Scope and Contents Notes of a conversation in Holland with Christian Huygens, concerning an 'horologium' to show hours, months, years, and planetary positions. More general mention of the work of numerous other scientists: Notably, Huygens disputes the notion of John Bernoulli (James Bernoulli's younger brother) that the curve of an inflated sail is part-catenary and part-circle, and warns that Newton ought not to be 'deflected' into theology or chemistry.
Dates: 06 June 1693

Observata et Dicta ... cum Huygeno Junio 1693, 30 June 1693

 Item
Identifier: Coll-33/Quarto A [14]
Scope and Contents Remarks en passant about library volumes in history and physics seen in Leiden. A longer passage follows: notes to a conversation with Christiaan Huygens, critiquing Sir Isaac Newton's notions of absolute motion and the propagation of light. Huygens also says that John Flamsteed ought to declare for the absolute speed of light, and that this should persuade Jean Dominique Cassini.
Dates: 30 June 1693

Quarto A, c1680-c1708

 Series — Box: Dk.1.2
Identifier: Coll-33/Quarto A
Scope and Contents The papers of David Gregory in Quarto A consist of: 107 manuscript papers and an index, relating to: theoretical physics, including optics, especially treatises on refraction and colour, on mechanics, specifically on velocity, gravitation, centrifugal and centripetal force, and the movement of solids through fluid, and an occasional thought on magnetic attraction. Applied physics, considering ships, tides, and...
Dates: c1680-c1708

Quo ad D.G. spectant in Pitcarnii Probl. de inventoribus, after August 1688

 Item
Identifier: Coll-33/Quarto A [42]
Scope and Contents Commentary on Archibald Pitcairne's Edinburgh edition of Solutio Problematis de Historicis; seu de Inventoribus Dissertatio, (1688) of which an enlarged edition appeared at Leiden in 1693. This tract made Pitcairne's subsequent medical career on the continent for its vindication of the claims of William Harvey to the discovery of the circulation of the blood. It contains other things as well, notably the first public presentation of Gregory's second method of...
Dates: after August 1688

Scheda D.G. de rotatione globi de percussione orta, 12 February 1695

 Item
Identifier: Coll-33/Quarto A [25]
Scope and Contents David Gregory's solution to Sir Edmund Halley's problem, proposed during Gregory's composition of the "Tract on Fluxions", of finding the rotary motion in a sphere struck by another sphere. (Halley's solution is in Coll-33/Quarto A [7].) It is built on some basic lemmas and includes a reference (possibly after the date given) to proposition 40 of the "Tract on Fluxions".
Dates: 12 February 1695