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Gregory, David, 1659-1708 (professor of mathematics, University of Edinburgh, and Savilian Professor of Astronomy, University of Oxford)


David Gregory (1659-1708), astronomer and mathematician, was the first university professor to teach astronomy in the language of Newtonian gravitation. He is famous for his influential textbook, Astronomiae Physicae et Geometricae Elementa, (1702). Having studied a while at Marischal College, Aberdeen, and without graduating, Gregory took the Mathematics Chair at Edinburgh University in 1683, by unseating the incumbent there in a series of public debates. It helped that the chair had been occupied briefly some years before by his esteemed uncle, James Gregorie (1638-1675). David was awarded a hasty MA for decorum's sake, even though he had never studied in Edinburgh, and taught for seven years. His lecture notes show that he covered a broad range of subjects, some of them not in mathematics. He also taught a little optics, mechanics, hydrostatics, and even anatomy, from Galen. His first significant publication was in 1684, the Exercitatio geometrica de dimensione figurarum , in which he extended his uncle's work on the method of quadratures by infinite series.
In 1689 there sprang bad blood between the university masters and their paymasters, the city council, initially having to do with pay cuts and treacherous electioneering. There quickly developed a web of sleights and grudges, in the course of which Gregory was libelled before the new Hanoverian committee of visitation as it toured all the Scottish educational bodies following the recent change of government. He was said to be a violent, drunken atheist, who kept women in his chambers and once visited a prisoner in the Canongate tollbooth; worse, he was a superficial teacher and a crypto-Cartesian. Surrounded by influential friends, and not holding any demonstrably radical views in politics, science, or deportment, he was finally not dismissed from the faculty as many of his colleagues were, nor even required to swear the oath of allegiance to the Hanoverian monarchy or the religious Confession of Faith either.
Yet by 1691 he saw fit to cadge a fresh appointment comfortably far away, in Oxford. This was the Savilian Chair of Astronomy. In its pursuit he came to know personally the figures with whom he had lately been in professional correspondence, like Isaac Newton (1642-1727), Edmond Halley (1656-1742), and John Flamsteed (1646-1719), the first Astronomer Royal. He was given another MA to suit the post, and a desultory MD; he was elected to the Royal Society, and appointed a master commoner of Balliol College. He spent the rest of his life as Savilian Professor, where he became something of an evangelist for Newtonian science among the Cartesians. He even troubled to travel to the continent, to exchange views with prominent colleagues like Jan Hudde (1628-1704) and Christiaan Huygens (1629-1695). He quarrelled occasionally with Newton and Halley over various points of research, and with Flamsteed over tutoring maths in the Duke of Gloucester's household, but generally carried on very productively.
His Edinburgh lectures he retooled by 1695 into the enduringly influential optics textbook, Catoptricae et dioptricae sphaericae elementa, whose special contribution was to propose an achromatic telescope, whose combined lenses ought to counteract colour aberrations. By 1702 his principle work went to press, the remarkable Astronomiae physicae et geometricae elementa. This was the first textbook to cast astronomy completely in the alloy of Newtonian gravitational principles. Newton himself assisted with the work, which at least one publisher immodestly declared would 'last as long as the sun and the moon'. It certainly lasted most of the eighteenth century. His final big publication was a joint edition of Euclid, which appeared in 1703. All through his career he complemented his monographs with a steady flow of journal articles and published correspondence in mathematics and astronomy; his special interests included the catenary curve, eclipses, the contemporary 'parallax problem', and the very famous Cassinian orbital model for heavenly bodies.
Late in his life, in 1707, the Act of Union between Scotland and England effectively ended Gregory's studies, calling him away from his work on an edition of Apollonius (eventually finished by Halley), and setting him to work instead on rationalising the Scottish Mint, even as Newton was doing at the London Mint, and on calculating the enormously complex 'Equivalent', a payment to Scotland to offset new customs and excise duties. His health failed him during his extensive official travelling. David Gregory died in a Maidenhead inn a year later. David Gregory was elected Fellow of the Royal Society in 1692 and was made honorary fellow of the Royal College of Physicians of Edinburgh in 1705.

Found in 320 Collections and/or Records:

Caroli Oliphant praefatio ad Opticam De. Gregorii, 1680's

Identifier: Coll-33/Folio C [114]
Scope and Contents An unpublished preface to Gregory's Optics. He praises Gregory's language, and excuses his editorial limitation to spherical surfaces. Since Descartes' discovery of the sine law of refraction, he says, optical writers have expected too much from still-crude contemporary reflective surfaces. Charles Oliphant is known to us only as a physician, not a scientist, but may also have been Gregory's brother-in-law; he may be the same Charles Oliphant as the one Gregory taught briefly at...
Dates: 1680's

Carulus Bovillus ... Cycloidem Noverat 1507, 9 November 1696

Identifier: Coll-33/Folio C [109]
Scope and Contents A page of reading notes from mathematics works from 1503-1509, edited it appears by one Charles Bovill. An inky thumbprint obscures one of the two diagrams on the page.

An algebraic proof, possibly unrelated, follows on a separate sheet.
Dates: 9 November 1696

Catalogue of book[s] now in Holland, May 1693

Identifier: Coll-33/Quarto A [23]
Scope and Contents List of 17 titles (partial cites only) in Latin and French, in an unnamed repository, concerning history, classical literature, and philosophical commentary, such as the "Dictionaire Critique de M. Bail".
Dates: May 1693

Catalogue of the Mathematical Works of the Learned Mr. Thomas Baker, c1683

Identifier: Coll-33/Quarto A [11]
Scope and Contents 7 page printed catalogue of the mathematical works of Thomas Baker. According to David Gregory's own index this was "Printed by Mr Collins". John Collins was a well known register of scientific accomplishments and zealous correspondent with Gregory and his uncle James Gregory (the source of David's core maths collection). This catalogue was printed, with a proposal for producing all of Baker's works in full, under the aegis of the Royal Society, whose council approved the measure and agreed to...
Dates: c1683

Catalogus librorum non videram 1692, 1692

Identifier: Coll-33/Quarto A [44]
Scope and Contents Ersatz title is "Memorandum to Dr Gray to pick up as he finds opportunity these books". They are partial titles, numbering about a dozen, covering subjects as divers as optics, astronomy, and gardening.
Dates: 1692

Catalogus Librorum Novorum Mathem: in Gallijs 1693, c1693

Identifier: Coll-33/Quarto A [29]
Scope and Contents List of partial titles in applied mathematics, mostly, in a hand other than David Gregory's-and one of them in Greek, not a language in which he was comfortable. 1693 was the year he made his last trip to the continent, visiting Flanders as new Savilian Professor. These varied titles consider things like the statics of exploding gunpowder and draining water, dioptrics, micromeasurement, catapults, and astrophysics. This bibliography may be part of a larger one, judging by "par le meme" in the...
Dates: c1693

Celestial observations, 6 May 1696

Identifier: Coll-33/Folio E [82]
Scope and Contents Tabulations of an evening's heavenly observation. The movement of something in the constellation of Leo appears to be the subject.
Dates: 6 May 1696

Charta 4 fol. Notae ad loca quaedam difficiliora Geom: Cartesianae, October 1696

Identifier: Coll-33/Folio C [3]
Scope and Contents Commentary on Schooten's 1659 edition of Descartes' "Geometria".
Dates: October 1696

Chartae 4. fol: de Nostra 2da Quadrandi Methodo, 1686

Identifier: Coll-33/Folio C [206]
Scope and Contents A tranche of workpapers in which Gregory continues to labour on adapting Newton's method of quadrature. He continues to have trouble adapting the basic series, an indefinite integral, to the definite integral defined between O and x.

One paper among these was probably intended for the Astronomiae, showing a body moving in an ellipse.
Dates: 1686

Collatio Dat: Euclidis, c1703

Identifier: Coll-33/Folio E [059]
Scope and Contents Notes on Gregory's Euclid volume.
Dates: c1703