Murchison, Sir Roderick Impey, 1792-1871 (1st Baronet | Scottish geologist)
- Existence: 22 February 1792- 22 October 1871
Sir Roderick Impey Murchison ( 1792-1871), developed the modern classification of the Palaeozoic period, through his research emphasising biostratigraphy; the deposition of strata indicated by fossils. In the course of his career he successively defined the Silurian, Devonian and Permian strata, which replaced Greywacke and Coal Measures in the scientific literature.
After serving with the army in the Peninsula War and a period of time pursuing his interest in hunting, the independently wealthy Murchison began attending lectures at the Royal Institution. In 1825 he joined the Geological Society of London. Shortly afterwards he read the society his first paper, on the geology of parts of Sussex, Hampshire and Surrey. In the following five years Murchison made field explorations to Scotland, France, and the Alps with either Adam Sedgwick or Charles Lyell. In 1831 he began a study of the Early Palaeozoic rocks in South Wales. These studies were the basis of his defining work The Silurian System, ( 1839) . Further geological research in south western England and the Rhineland, in collaboration with Adam Sedgwick, defined the Devonian System. Russian field expeditions, in conjunction with French colleagues, became the basis for the definition of the Permian System. These expeditions also resulted in his works The Geology of Russia in Europe, ( 1845) and The Ural Mountains, ( 1845) . Successive editions of his expanded treatise on the Silurian System, Siluria, ( 1854) (5th ed. 1872) were also prepared. Latterly he became interested in encouraging geographical exploration and colonialism.
Murchison was president of the Geological Society of London in both 1831-1832 and 1842-1843 and became long term president of the Royal Geographical Society in 1844. As one of the founders of the British Association he was elected president for 1846. He was knighted in 1846 and also awarded the Russian Order of St. Stanislaus of the 1st Class. Appointments as director general of the Geological Survey of Great Britain, and director of the Government School of Mines and the Museum of Economic Geology, London, followed in 1855. From 1863-1871 he was Patron of the Edinburgh Geological Society during which time he was raised to a Baronet. In 1871 he founded a Chair of Geology and Mineralogy at the University of Edinburgh.
Found in 5 Collections and/or Records:
Scope and Contents Addressed from Port Philip Heads, Melbourne, 10 July 1855, the autograph letter signed by Sir Charles Hotham (then lieutenant governor of the Australian colony of Victoria) is to the geologist Sir Roderick Murchison (1792-1871).The letter begins with Hotham assuring Murchison that with regard to the 'pretensions' of 'Mr. Clarke' (meaning the geologist William Branwhite Clarke, 1798-1878), in claiming to have made the first discovery of gold in Australia, he is 'delighted' that Murchison...
Dates: 10 July 1855
Scope and Contents The papers Sir Archibald Geikie consist of: personal, organisational and scientific correspondence geological notebooks with field sketches and water-colours reprints of his work miscellaneous lecture notes student's lecture notes lecture notes and printed maps relating to a visit to Boston proofs for...
Scope and Contents
- Family papers
- Papers of Kenneth Murchison
- Papers of Sir Roderick Impey Murchison
Scope and Contents The collection contains minute books of general and council meetings from 1834 to 1982; treasurer's accounts; laws, lists and rolls of members; membership applications; and, billets of meetings 1879 to 1939, and 1939-1990; correspondence; and, papers read 1863-64. Printed items include a history of the Edinburgh Geological Society; proceedings of the Society; copies of the Edinburgh Geologist; leaflets; and geological excursion guides.