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Ars generalis ultima by Ramon Llull, 15th century

Identifier: MS 117/ff. 1r-10v


This section contains the Alphabetum of the Ars generalis ultima (sometimes called the Ars magna) by Ramon Llull. This is a religious philosophical work thought to be intended to convert Muslims to the Christian faith through logic and reason.

The Alphabetum is a central part of the so-called Tenary formulation of the Ars, the version of the Ars that Llull produced between 1305 and 1308 in response to criticism to the earlier versions. It is formed by nine letters (B, C, D, E, F, G, H, I, and K) and can be used to form propositions and arguments, and formulate and solve questions, when used in conjunction with associated figures and diagrams.

In this manuscript, the Alphabetum and associated figures start on f. 1r with the words Bonitas, Magnitudo, Duratio. ff. 1r-6r contain the figures.

After the figures, there is a prose section that begins on f. 7r. This section ends on f. 10v with the words constantia subtilitas moralitas. Explicit alffabetum artis generalis magistri Raimundi ad laudem Dominus Noster Jesus Christus. Amen..


It seems that this section has been written by two separate hands. The figures and diagrams at the start (ff. 1r-6r) are in a different hand to the prose following them (ff. 7r-10v). The hand that wrote the latter half of this section is similar to the hand of the next section (ff. 12r-14v) and the fourth section (ff. 22v-23r).


  • Creation: 15th century

Language of Materials


Conditions Governing Access

The collection is open to all. The manuscripts can be consulted in the Centre for Research Collections, Edinburgh University Main Library.


10 folios

Repository Details

Part of the University of Edinburgh Library Heritage Collections Repository

Centre for Research Collections
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